TourTourCalculator for cylindrical tension bar
 Diameter of the bar D   10-3 m
 Length of the bar in tension L   10-3 m
 Modulus of elasticity E   109 Pa
 Load F   N
 Cross section area A = π/4 D2   10-6 m2
 Tensile stress σ = F / A 1)   106 Pa
 Deflection δ = F L / (A E)    10-3 m
 Stiffness k = dF / dδ    106 N/m
The simplest spring is the tension bar but its deformation is small if it's made of metal. Many machine elements like bolts are to be considered as high stiffness spring elements. The compliance of the clamped material and the bolt stiffness predominate the quality of the joint. Simply Hook's law is to be applied to calculate the spring characteristics of for example bicycle spokes.